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Online Guide to Writing and Research

Academic Integrity and Documentation

Types of Documentation

In-Text or Parenthetical Citations

In the in-text or parenthetical style, references to sources are placed in parentheses in the text itself rather than in footnotes and endnotes. The parenthetical note, then, refers the reader to a reference list that provides the publication information for the source. In-text citations are required for summaries and paraphrases as well as direct quotes.  Review the required style guide for your assignment to determine how to properly document your sources in both the in-text citations as well as the corresponding reference.

“It has always been the prime function of mythology and rite to supply the symbols that carry the human spirit forward, in counteraction to those other constant human fantasies that tend to tie it back” (Campbell, 1973, p. 11).

Campbell, J. (1973). The Hero with a Thousand Faces (3rd ed.). Princeton University Press.

Formal Writing Habits

Key Takeaways

  • In-text or parenthetical citations use parentheses to indicate information is from a source material. 
  • Each in-text citation must have a corresponding reference entry.


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Table of Contents: Online Guide to Writing