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Online Guide to Writing and Research

The Writing Process


Techniques to Get Started

Using Systematic Techniques

Some writing techniques can determine the entire structure of your paper. In this sense, these techniques are “systematic,” meaning that they are preconceived and shape the entirety of the work that will flow from them. Systematic techniques—those that have a preconceived structure—often work well for students who like to observe and reflect on what they observe. 

Depending on your learning style, you might work best with a structured outlining process. Whatever your preferred style, you will benefit if you try a new or different thought process. If you enjoy organizing your ideas in a detailed manner with sequenced order, trying the techniques below will help.

Classic Strategies

Writers develop their essays using a variety of strategies. However, a number of them are tried-and-true, classic, so much so that they are almost a requirement. Beginning writers at the college level should consider using most, if not all, of the strategies listed below and should think carefully before leaving one out. Sometimes your assignments will instruct you to center your entire essay on one strategy, but for the most part, these are basic reasoning strategies your readers need to fully understand your work.

Using the strategies below allows you to thoughtfully answer a few questions using topics you might be interested in exploring. You may recognize these strategies as ways to develop or organize an essay. Your essay assignment might include a definition essay, division and classification, compare and contrast, cause and effect, or process analysis. 

As you write these answers and think about your topic, take brief notes. After reviewing your notes, mark the ideas that seem promising. As a bonus, each of these strategies suggests a logical way to organize your writing. You might not use all these strategies in one paper, but you might use one or two.

Answer these questions about your topic:

  • Definition: How would I define my topic or subject? Does it belong to a larger group? How can I use it? 

  • Division and classification: To what greater category does this topic belong? How do I classify its parts?

  • Comparison and contrast: What is this topic similar to? What is it different from? How is it similar or different?

  • Cause and effect: What caused this topic (situation)? What are its effects? Why does it occur?

  • Process analysis: How does it work? Does it fit into any other processes? 

Generating Ideas

Topic: Effects of Pfiesteria pollution in Chesapeake Bay

  • Definition: What exactly is Pfiesteria? Algae and bacteria? What other kinds of water pollution are there? Do I want to include other kinds of water pollution? 

  • Division and classification: Is the Pfiesteria pollution of the bay categorized? Does the Pfiesteria belong to a genus of algae or bacteria? The effects on fish, crabs, and humans differ somewhat but are still deadly.

  • Comparison and contrast: Are there other kinds of algae outbreaks? Are any as deadly as Pfiesteria? How have the algae in the bay changed? 

  • Cause and effect: What are the causes of the Pfiesteria pollution? Does the farm run-off from Lancaster County affect the Pfiesteria? What are the effects on the human as well as the fish populations? On others who live and work on the bay?

  • Process analysis: How does the Pfiesteria pollution happen? What causes the algae to grow so deadly? How does farm run-off contribute to the problem? Describe the process by which the water becomes deadly. Describe the death process in fish. How about humans? 


Traditional Reporter Questions- The Five W's and H

What happened? When did that happen? Why? We all play reporter sometimes and doing so when you write a paper can help the process along. Over decades, reporters have formalized the questions they ask. They call them "the five W’s and an H.” Asking questions and seeking answers about your topic will generate details and give you context for writing about your selected topic.

Use the five W’s and H for inquiring about the topic:

  • Who?

  • What? 

  • Where?

  • When?

  • Why?

  • How?

Generating Reporter Questions

Topic:  Effects of Pfiesteria pollution of the Chesapeake Bay

  • Who?  Who is causing the Pfiesteria pollution? Whom does it affect? Who cares about it? People who live on the bay? Work on the bay? Fishermen?

  • What?  Should the Pfiesteria outbreak be treated as serious? Narrow topic to Pfiesteria pollution in fish only? What about people?

  • Where?  Just in the Wicomico or Choptank rivers? What part of the bay will I cover? Is the Eastern Shore more affected than the Western Shore?

  • When?  Concentrate my research on the last year? The last five years? Is there a history of Pfiesteria outbreaks that I should look at?

  • How?  Where is the pollution coming from? Amish farms in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania? Chicken farms on the Eastern Shore?

  • Why?  The Pfiesteria outbreak killed five people. Millions of dollars lost to the fishermen. Economic and health effects significant.

Multiple Perspectives

Writers need lots of perspectives: old perspectives, new perspectives, and ones that are just different. Experienced writers seek out multiple perspectives. Looking at your topic from multiple perspectives may present unexpected ideas and details to pursue. When forced to look at your topic from multiple points of view, unexpected relationships reveal themselves. You will also be forced to question any of your own assumptions.  This approach conveys differences, variability, and prevalence.

If you already have an opinion on this topic, how was it formed?

Answer these questions about your topic:

  • What is its essence?

  • How would you describe it? 

  • How does it fit into a larger group or system?

  • How does it compare with others like it in the group?

  • How does it change over time, and how much does it change before it becomes something else?

  • How is it unique? 

Answers to Our Questions

Topic:  Environmental pollution of the Chesapeake Bay

What is its essence?   Is Pfiesteria a form of algae pollution? Bacteria?

How would you describe it?   How does the Pfiesteria pollution show itself? Can we tell before the fish start dying? Millions of dead fish? Algae-covered shorelines? Cloudy, smelly water? Causes a type of human dementia.

How does it fit into a larger group or system?  What other kinds of pollution are there in the bay? Does it pollute water primarily? What other algae does it compete with?

How does it compare with others like it in the group?  Is Pfiesteria the only deadly algae found there?

How does it change over time, and how much does it change before it becomes something else?  How long does it take for Pfiesteria to become deadly? Does it transmute? Is it ever not deadly? Has it changed over the years? Have the effects of the outbreak changed?

How is it unique?  Is Pfiesteria one of a kind or one of many strains? Why is this strain so deadly? Do all algae outbreaks affect humans?

When you use these techniques and strategies for generating ideas about your topic, you can also include notes about how you will find your supporting evidence. For example, in our sample topic about Pfiesteria, you might check the Washington Post archives for the last year to find timely information about the most recent Pfiesteria outbreak or even visit the EPA Web page to see whether any information is available there. The Maryland Fish and Wildlife Department will also have information. It’s important to have some ideas about where you can go to get more details and perhaps even more ideas about how you want to treat your topic.

Key Takeaways

  • Systematic techniques—those that have a preconceived structure—often work well for students who like to observe and reflect on what they observe. 
  • Utilizing classic strategies, traditional reporter questions, and multiple perspectives are useful when generating organized ideas.

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